[15] The most economically feasible and environmentally friendly control measure would be to develop and use Striga-resistant cultivars. Eleusine indica(L.) Gaertn. It is grown from about 500 to about 2400 m above sea level (e.g. Its use in holy Hindu practices is barred especially by upper castes. (Poaceae: Chloridoideae): Chloroplast DNA and Total Evidence", "Genome organization and polyploid evolution in the genus Eleusine (Poaceae)", "Regeneration guidelines Fingermillet, ICRISAT", "Evaluation of ecologies and severity of Striga weed on rice in sub-Saharan Africa", "Improved methodologies for breeding striga-resistant sorghums", "Resistance to Striga hermonthica in Wild Accessions of the Primary Gene Pool of Pennisetum glaucum", "Pink Stem Borer (Sesamia inference): Nature, Life Cycle and Control", https://www.livechennai.com/healthnews.asp?catid=10&newsid=45408&nav=n, List of top international rankings by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eleusine_coracana&oldid=991923810, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles needing additional references from February 2019, All articles needing additional references, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, With cereals: Finger millet/maize, finger millet/. Especially in early growing stages of the crop and the weed and when broadcast seeding instead of row seeding is applied (as often the case in East Africa), the two species are very difficult to distinguish. silver crabgrass. 1: 8. We acknowledge Australian Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islander People as the first inhabitants of the nation, and acknowledge Traditional Owners of the lands where our staff and students live, learn and work. In East and Southern Africa, the closely related species Eleusine indica (common name Indian goose grass) is a severe weed competitor of finger millet. It is also naturalised in the southern parts of South Australia, in the ACT, on several offshore islands (i.e. Eleusine indica healall (selfheal) Prunella vulgaris henbit Lamium amplexicaule kikuyugrass Pennisetum clandestinum knotweed, common Polygonum arenastrum … [11] Measures to control weeds include cultural, physical, and chemical methods. The organic weed management with this method is a problem, because it is difficult to distinguish between weed and crop. [4] Finger millet can be kept for up to 10 years when it is unthreshed. [18], Propagation in finger millet farming is done mainly by seeds. Diagnostic characters Biology Ecology and distribution Nuisance Weed control Botany Uses/Remark References Ragi mudde and bhajji with sambar and chutney, Idli, a South Indian breakfast dish made from ragi flour, Taxonomy and botanical description of finger millet, Growing finger millet to improve nutrition, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "Phenotypic Diversity of Nepalese Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Eleusine indica, the Indian goosegrass, yard-grass, goosegrass, wiregrass, or crowfootgrass, is a species of grass in the family Poaceae. It is then eaten with a spicy meat curry and is usually swallowed in small balls, rather than chewing. The seeds should be sown about 3 cm deep in the soil. Common Name Goosegrass Species Eleusine indica Group EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9) Herbicides glyphosate Location Italy, Caserta (CE), Campania region, southern Italy Year 2019 Situation(s) Nurseries Contributors - | 1,255 results for SPECIES: Eleusine indica placeholder The search results include records for synonyms and child taxa of placeholder ( link placeholder ). English. Common Name: INDIAN GOOSEGRASS Status: Not Native, FACU (NWPL) Specimen: View details of USF Herbarium specimens ** Not applicable or data not available. This is the famed kali or keppai kali. Eleusine coracana, or finger millet, is an annual herbaceous plant widely grown as a cereal crop in the arid and semiarid areas in Africa and Asia. Common name :Goose grass. The flour is consumed with milk, boiled water, or yogurt. [11], Finger millet is generally seen as not very prone to diseases and pests. [10], Finger millet monocrops grown under rainfed conditions are most common in drier areas of Eastern Africa. [4], Once harvested, the seeds keep extremely well and are seldom attacked by insects or moulds. wiregrass. Cultural methods could be sowing in rows instead of broadcast sowing to make distinction between finger millet seedlings and E. indica easier when hand weeding. The oldest record of finger millet comes from an archaeological site in Africa dating to the 8th century AD. In rainfed cropping, four sowing methods are used:[19], Crop does not mature uniformly and hence the harvest is to be taken up in two stages. Especially in early growing stages of the crop and the weed and when broadcast seeding instead of row seeding is applied (as often the case in East Africa), the two species are very difficult to distinguish. However, finger millet is difficult to mill due to the small size of the seeds and because the bran is bound very tightly to the endosperm. Eleusine domingensis Sieber ex Schult.. Eleusine glabra Schumach.. Eleusine gonantha Schrank. [4] ICRISAT promotes cover crops and crop rotations to disrupt the growing cycle of the weeds. Hindi. Zur Gattung gehört die Getreideart Fingerhirse (Eleusine coracana) und mit Eleusine indica ein heute weltweit verbreitetes, gefürchtetes Unkraut. Die etwa zehn Arten sind fast weltweit verbreitet, mit Verbreitungsschwerpunkt im tropischen Afrika. It is hardy to zone (UK) 9. Transplanting the seedlings: Raising the seedlings in nursery beds and transplant to the main field. Spikelets overhanging on the underside of the rachis. Finger millet can be ground into a flour and cooked into cakes, puddings or porridge. Seedlings with 4 weeks age should be transplanted in the field. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. For many plants, the website displays maps showing physiographic provinces within the Carolinas and Georgia where the plant has been documented. is an accepted name The Plant List Paragis is a local common name shared by (1) Eleusine indica, wire grass (2) Paspalum … Common Names. It is the staple diet of many residents of South Karnataka, especially in the rural areas. Crowsfoot grass (Eleusine indica) is widely naturalised in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, the Northern Territory and Western Australia. Therefore, the main product of finger millet is whole grain flour. Habit. Common name: Indian Crowfoot Grass, Indian goosegrass, Wiregrass, Crowfootgrass • Hindi: Malankuri, Balraja, ... Botanical name: Eleusine indica Family: Poaceae (Grass family) Synonyms: Cynosurus indicus, Eleusine japonica. For example, the Harnessing Opportunities for Productivity Enhancement of Sorghum and Millets in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (HOPE) project is increasing yields of finger millet in Tanzania by encouraging farmers to grow improved varieties. Millet flour is 9% water, 75% carbohydrates, 11% protein, and 4% fat (table). Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands) and is sparingly naturalised in Tasmania. Eleusine gouinii E.Fourn. [10] Measures to control Sesamia inferens are uprooting of infected plants, destroying of stubbles, having a crop rotation, chemical control with insecticides, biological measures such as pheromone traps, or biological pest control with the use of antagonistic organisms (e.g. This method is used in conservation agriculture. Hence, it can be cultivated on higher elevations than most tropical crops. ; Eleusine japonicaSteud. ex Wall.. Cynosurus indicus L.. Cynosurus pectinatus Lam.. Eleusine distachya Trin. Botanical name: Eleusine indica Family: Poaceae (Grass family) Synonyms: Cynosurus indicus, Eleusine japonica Indian Crowfoot Grass is an annual tufted grass. Chloris repens Steud.. Cynodon indicus (L.) Raspail. Broadcasting: Seeds are directly sown in the field. Eleusine indica is a non-native grass commonly found in disturbed sites throughout Florida (Wunderlin, 2003). The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), a member of the CGIAR consortium, partners with farmers, governments, researchers and NGOs to help farmers grow nutritious crops, including finger millet. Assamese. In Nepal, a thick dough (ḍhĩḍo) made of millet flour (kōdō) is cooked and eaten by hand. The pathogen leads to drying out of leaves, neck rots, and ear rots. When finger millet is germinated, enzymes are activated, which transfer starches into other carbohydrates such as sugars. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. (S.M.Phillips), Eleusine jaegeri (Pilg. Eleusine indica. Eleusine glabra Schumach. Common name in Hindi :Jangali marua, jhingari. This helps their communities have more balanced diets and become more resilient to pests and drought. [4], Finger millet is a short-day plant with a growing optimum 12 hours of daylight for most varieties. Distinguishing features Inflorescence with spikes digitate to subdigitate, usually 2-10. wiregrass. ... Narasimhan, D., Ravikumar, K. & Rao, M.L.V. Agriculture Technology and Adoption Centre, Association of Australian University Secretaries, Australian Quantum & Classical Transport Physics Group, Centre for Tropical Bioinformatics and Molecular Biology, Choosing Plants for Areas Prone to Cyclones, Reptiles and amphibians by scientific name, Wollumbinia latisternum (syn. Goose Grass Eleusine indica Grass family (Poaceae) Description: Goose Grass is a summer annual about ½–2' tall that is tufted at the base, sending up multiple ascending culms with alternate leaves. Moistening the millet seeds prior to grinding helps to remove the bran mechanically without causing damage to the rest of the seed. in Himalaya region). It is generally considered as a drought-tolerant crop, but compared with other millets, such as pearl millet and sorghum, it prefers moderate rainfall (500 millimetres (20 in) annually). This makes finger millet a weak competitor for light, water, and nutrients compared with weeds. Wetland Status. Its ability to bear waterlogging is limited, so good drainage of the soils and moderate water-holding capacity are optimal. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. A type of flat bread is prepared using finger millet flour (called ragi rotti in Kannada) in Northern districts of Karnataka. Eleusine indica (Linnaeus) Gaertner Common Name: Indian Goose Grass; Yard Grass Habitat: Disturbed soils. Naturalized from the Old World and locally established as a weed of disturbed ground in southern Michigan. In southern India, on pediatrician’s recommendation, finger millet is used in preparing baby food, because of millet’s high nutritional content, especially iron and calcium. The Plants Database includes the following 3 species of Eleusine . [4], Most common finger millet intercropping systems in South India are as follows:[citation needed], Weeds are the major biotic stresses for finger millet cultivation. All earheads, including the green ones, should be cut. Originally native to Eurasia, goosegrass is widely distributed in the United States. In the Kumaon region of northern India, ragi is traditionally fed to women after child birth. Other vernacular names Bufo, syn. Ragi is also used to make roti, idli, dosa and conjee. Another method to process the finger millet grain is germinating the seed. [2][3] It is a tetraploid and self-pollinating species probably evolved from its wild relative Eleusine africana. This is then rolled into balls of desired size and consumed with sambar (huli), saaru (ಸಾರು), or curries. Synonyms (former Scientific Names): Cynosurus indicus . It is a small annual grass distributed throughout the warmer areas of the world to about 50 degrees latitude. Ragi is called koozh – a staple diet in farming communities, eaten along with raw onions and green chillies. Eleusine indica, Goosegrass, Yard Grass, Indian Goose-grass. [11] Chemical measures can be direct spraying of systemic fungicides, such as the active ingredients pyroquilon or tricyclazone or seed dressings with fungicides such as trycyclozole.[11][13]. It is taken with sambar or kuzhambu. There are various food recipes of finger millet, including dosa, idli, and laddu. In the Malnad region of Karnataka, the whole ragi grain is soaked and the milk is extracted to make a dessert known as keelsa. Habitat A common weed of lawns, gardens, parks, footpaths, disturbed sites, waste areas, pastures, crops and orchards. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Furthermore, the delicate seed can get crushed during the milling. Plants [14] Striga can be controlled with limited success by hand weeding, herbicide application, crop rotations, improved soil fertility, intercropping and biological control. NameThatPlant.net currently features 3823 plants and 23,997 images. [4] In Uganda, yield losses up to 80% were reported in bad years. [11][12] Finger millet blast can be controlled with cultural measures, chemical treatments, and the use of resistant varieties. In Tamil Nadu, ragi is called kezhvaragu and also has other names like keppai, ragi, and ariyam. Heat tolerance of finger millet is high. [20] Ragi is dried, powdered, and boiled to form a thick mass that is allowed to cool. The majority of worldwide finger millet farmers grow it rainfed, although yields often can be significantly improved when irrigation is applied. Eleusine indica is closely related to Eleusine coracana (finger millet or African finger millet), and the diploid E. indica is likely an ancestor of the allotetraploid E. coracana.. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Eleusine Indica. Drilling in rows: Seeds are sown directly in the untreated soil by using a direct-seed drill. - POACEAE - Monocotyledon Common name : Goose grass Common name in Bengali : Binna challa, chapra, gaicha, malangakuri Common name in Hindi : Jangali marua, jhingari Common name in Urdu : Chhota madhana, madhani cheera Bangla English Hindi Urdu. Eleusine indica. At the first harvest, all earheads that have turned brown should be cut. Mudde is prepared by cooking the ragi flour with water to achieve a dough-like consistency. B. S. Walters. Eleusine indica - POACEAE. [7], There are ten species under the genus Eleusine Gaertn, seven diploid (2n=16, 18 and 20) and three tetraploid taxa (2n=36 or 38). Relative to other species (pearl millet and sorghum), finger millet has a higher tolerance to cool temperatures. The straw from finger millet is used as animal fodder. It includes cultivated crops, gardens and roadsides. [citation needed]. Furthermore, the industrial use of whole grain finger millet flour is limited. [4], Finger millet originated in East Africa (Ethiopian and Ugandan highlands) and came to India around 2000 BCE. Most of the leaves are located toward the base of the culms. 1789; Hook. Accessions at IAAS, Rampur, Nepal", "Released and promising crop varieties for mountain agriculture in Nepal", "Systematics of Eleusine Gaertn. It has poor content of calcium, potassium, and sodium (less than 10% DV, table). Finger millet can grow on various soils, including highly weathered tropical lateritic soils. For early Rabi and Kharif season, seedlings should be transplanted at 25 cm x 10 cm and for late Kharif season at 30 cm x 10 cm. A-Z sorted by Scientific Names | A-Z sorted by Common Names | A-Z sorted by Family. [4], Finger millet is native to the Ethiopian and Ugandan highlands. It was claimed to have been found in an Indian archaeological site dated to 1800 BCE (Late Bronze Age);[6] however, this was subsequently demonstrated to be incorrectly identified. How Eleusine Indica is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Planting should be done 3 cm depth in the soil, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 15:18. Seeds of E. indica are edible and are sometimes used as a famine food, but yields are low.It is an important weed of cultivated crops, lawns, and golf courses. [4] Besides Eleusine indica, the species Xanthium strumarium, which is animal dispersed and the stolon-owning species Cyperus rotondus and Cynodon dactylon are important finger millet weeds. Facilitates organic weed management due to better distinction of weed and crop. & Schult.f. Foto n. 117061 - pé-de-galo (Eleusine indica) Voucher 050406 14 at Moku Mana north, Maui - Credit: Forest and Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii - Image licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, permitting sharing and Nonetheless, finger millet blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea (anamorph Pyricularia grisea), can locally cause severe damages, especially when untreated. In addition, intercropping with legumes, such as cowpea or pigeon pea, are also quite common in East Africa. Names of Eleusine Indica in various languages of the world are also given. Common Name: goose grass, silver crabgrass, crowfoot, yardgrass, wiregrass Scientific Name: Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. After this drying, threshing and cleaning as after the first harvesting. In the tribal and western hilly regions of Odisha, ragi or mandiaa is a staple food. Elseya latisternum), Lygisaurus foliorium (syn. Line Sowing: Improved sowing compared to broadcasting. NameThatPlant.net currently features 3823 plants and 23,997 images. [8][9], Main cultivation areas are Eastern and Southern African countries (Uganda, Kenya, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Sudan, Tanzania, Nigeria and Mozambique) and Southern Asia (mainly India and Nepal). This preparation is boiled in water and used as a substitute for milk powder-based beverages. This has disadvantages, such as reduced storage time of the flour due to the high oil content. Cultural measures to control finger millet blast suggested by ICRISAT for Eastern Africa include crop rotations with nonhost crops such as legumes, deep ploughing under of finger millet straw on infected fields, washing of field tools after use to prevent dissemination of the pathogen to uninfected fields, weed control to reduce infections by weed hosts, and avoiding of high plant densities to impede the pathogen dispersal from plant to plant. [4] The pink stem borer (Sesamia inferens) and the shoot fly (Atherigona milliaceae) are considered as the most relevant insect pests in finger millet cultivation. This process is also called malting and is very common in the production of brewed beverages such as beer. When the earhead on the main shoot and 50% of the earheads on the crop turn brown, the crop is ready for the first harvest. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. It is also widespread in Florida where it is commonly found in cultivated fields, turf, pastures, landscapes, orchards, roadsides, and other disturbed sites. Another pathogen of relevance in the finger millet cultivation is the fungus Helminthosporium nodulosum, causing leaf blight. Each spike approximately 4-15 cm long. The Plants Database includes the following 3 species of Eleusine . This is the common method because it is the easiest way and no special machinery is required. ex A.Rich), Eleusine semisterilis (S.M.Phillips) and Eleusine tristachya (Lam.) For Ugandan finger millet varieties, for instance, the optimal average growth temperature ranges at about 27 °C, while the minimal temperatures should not be lower than 18 °C. Nevertheless, finger millet is found to be grown at 30°N in the Himalaya region (India and Nepal). [4] Finger millet can tolerate moderately acidic soils (pH 5), but also moderately alkaline soils (pH 8.2). f., Fl. Eleusine gonantha Schrank Eleusine gouinii E.Fourn. Genbank common name: goosegrass NCBI BLAST name: monocots Rank: species Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Plastid genetic code: Translation table 11 (Bacterial, Archaeal and Plant Plastid) Fermented millet is used to make a beer chhaang and the mash is distilled to make a liquor (rakśiशी). In Karnataka, finger millet is generally consumed in the form of a porridge called ragi mudde in Kannada. crowsfoot grass. Striga, a parasitic weed which occurs naturally in parts of Africa, Asia, and Australia, can severely affect the crop and yield losses in finger millet and other cereals by 20 to 80%. Diet in farming communities, eaten along with raw onions and green chillies at 15:18 Queensland, South... The soil, this page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 15:18 step... To cool is a non-native Grass commonly found in disturbed sites, waste areas pastures! 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Rather than chewing, this page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 15:18 within should., Victoria, the delicate seed can get crushed during the milling balanced diets and more., on other hand, can be ground into flour or pigeon pea are! Become more resilient to pests and drought its wild relative Eleusine africana limited, so good of... Straw from finger millet intercropping mostly with legumes, but also moderately alkaline soils ( pH 8.2 ) weed! Taxa of placeholder ( Link placeholder ) 2020, at 15:18 the millet seeds prior grinding!