Definition of concepts Motivation According to Passer and Smith (2004, p.327) the concept “motivation” refers to a process that influences the direction, persistence and vigour of goal-directed behaviour. Expectancy–Value Theory of Achievement Motivation Allan Wigfield University of Maryland and Jacquelynne S. Eccles University of Michigan We discuss the expectancy–value theory of motivation, focusing on an expec-tancy–value model developed and … At least two conscious ones: membership and performance decisions. The Expectancy-Value Theory of achievement motivation describes a complex interplay of aptitudes, beliefs, previous experiences, goals, self-schema, interest, expectancy, and perceived/subjective assessment of the utility vs. cost of a particular task or domain (Wigfield and Eccles 69). The expectancy theory of motivation provides an explanation as to why an individual chooses to act out a specific behavior as opposed to another. Individuals decide upon their own behaviour in organisations. Values are incentives or reasons for engaging in an activity. Expectancy theory proposes a causal relationship between expectancy attitudes and motivation. One strand of this literature focuses on the values individuals hold for participating in various types of activities (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). The theory takes into account the expectations of an individual when understanding their anticipated motivation. Vroom’s expectancy theory provides a process of cognitive variables that reflects individual differences in work motivation. The main process theories of motivation are – Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory, Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, Adam’s Equity Theory, and Locke’s Goal Setting Theory. Not one of both. As is shown in the fourth column in Table 1, only one of the previous studies was concerned with testing the causal aspects of this model (LaMer, 1968). The diagram below shows how the different motivation theories fit within the scheme of things. In the same vein, Coetsee Utilizing Vroom’s Expectancy Theory as a framework, Sanchez, Truxillo and Bauer [27] developed the Valence, Instrumentality, Expectancy, Motivation Scale (VIEMS) that quantifies test-taking motivation, specifically as it relates to test performance or academic achievement that leads to vocational em-ployment. This cognitive process evaluates the motivational force (MF) of the different behavioral options based on the individual's own perception of the probability of attaining his desired outcome. Expectancy Theory of Motivation Viktor Vroom's (1932) theory (1964) has a few assumptions: A combination of forces in the individual and environment determine behaviour. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. We discuss the expectancy-value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy-value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. In this model, employees are rational people whose beliefs, perceptions, and probability estimates influence their behaviors. Expectancy theory (or Expectancy theory of motivation) proposes an individual will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be. include expectancy-value theories, intrinsic motivation theories, and self-determination theory. EXPECTANCY-VALENCE THEORY Expectancy-valence theory is a theory focused on motivation based upon the choices an individual makes when striving for a goal. 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