B) behaviorism. D (because "LEVER PRESS > shock" is the effective contingency), If the rat does not press the lever, then it does not receive a shock. C) observational learning. B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called: A) shaping. One year later, we find that Gina runs away from hornets but not houseflies, which is an example of stimulus _. Lana finds that the children in her class are extremely unruly. Postreinforcement pauses are most likely to occur on which two types of simple intermittent schedules? Match. Behaviors that are performed for their own sake are said to be _ motivated; behaviors that are performed to achieve some additional incentive are said to be _ motivated. Ahmed found school only slightly interesting. By comparison, a bee phobia may be acquired after _ conditioning trial(s). Regardless of how often the lever was pressed, the food pellet was only delivered upon pressing the lever after 12 seconds. Pietro is having great difficulty sleeping, is easily startled, and has developed various phobias. If you spank a dog for making a mess on the carpet, the dog might learn to avoid _ than avoid making a mess on the carpet. Major advantages of using the sound of a click for shaping are that the click can be delivered _ and the animal is unlikely to _ upon it. If Jason is extremely persistent in asking Neem out for a date, she will occasionally accept his invitation. Operant Conditioning. The three-term contingency can be thought of as an ABC sequence in which A stands for _, B stands for _, and C stands for _. successive (or gradual) approximations; shaping. learned industriousness; positively reinforced. "If I'm not a success in every aspect of my life, my family will reject me." Laura tried very hard to get Trish to talk to her. Beth's behavior of pulling her hand away served to _ the dog's behavior of growling. Create. This is because Tamsen tends to give her treats, but Natasha does not. The behavior of these troops is obviously under strong _ control. When Erin was babysitting Lucie, it took hours before Lucie would stop pestering her for a treat (Erin had been instructed not to give her any treats). On a _ schedule, a response must not occur until 20 seconds have elapsed since the last reinforcer. According to Thorndike's _, behaviors that lead to a _ state of affairs are strengthened, whereas behaviors that lead to an _ state of affairs are weakened. On _ schedules, reinforcement is contingent upon the rate of response. When Trish's best friend Laura spread some nasty rumors about her, Trish stopped talking to her. Created by. The next time Erin babysits Lucie, Lucie will (probably/probably not) _ resume asking for a treat. Mowrer's two-process theory seems highly applicable to obsessive-compulsive disorder in that the occurrence of an obsessive thought is associated with a(n) _ anxiety, while performance of a compulsive behavior is associated with a(n) _ in anxiety. Of the four basic schedules, Jason's behavior of asking Neem for a date is most likely on a _ schedule of reinforcement. Top quizlet.com Start studying AP Psychology: Learning - Operant Conditioning. At the zoo one day, you notice that a zookeeper is leading a rhinoceros into a pen by repeatedly whistling at it as the animal moves. When Mehgan lived in Vancouver, she dated Mike, who was quite uneducated, and David, who was moderately educated. When Asha's parents won the lottery and bought her lots of neat playthings, she became (less/more) _ interested in school. This is because the appearance of game was often on a (use the abbreviation) _ schedule of reinforcement. Log in Sign up. -A rat was rewarded with food pellets for pressing a lever. According to Mowrer, I go out of my way to avoid bees because behaving this way has been (positively/negatively) _ (reinforced/. STUDY. Through this process, an association is formed between the behavior and the consequences of that behavior. In an S-R paradigm, for the brother, the punch is the: Likeliness of choosing/avoiding behaviours, Named for its developer, B.F. Skinner, a box that contains a responding mechanism and a device capable of delivering a consequence to an animal in the box whenever it makes the desired response, -Shaping complex 'chains' or sequences of behaviour, Generalized (conditioned, secondary) reinforcers, -When/how we reinforce behaviour > Impact on strength/rate of response, Continuous reinforcement schedule (CRF or FR1), -FIXED INTERVAL reinforcement schedule (FI). She may also become clinically _. If a father punishes his son for being aggressive with his playmates, the son may learn not to be aggressive only when the father is _. Otto woke up one night to find an intruder standing over him in his bedroom. Browse. Clarify what positive and negative mean. Learning from the consequences of behavior. An operant conditioning schedule describes the stimuli in which a reinforcing event is delivered following and contingent upon the occurrence of … More persistent is to less persistent as (high/low) _ resistance to extinction is to _ resistance to extinction. Test. Classical Conditioning. Gravity. Events that are innately reinforcing are called _ reinforcers; events that become reinforcers through experience are called _ reinforcers. When Trish's friend Laura spread some nasty rumors about her, Trish stopped talking to her. When the commander yells "Charge!" This is an example of the _ effect. Eventually Beth gave up, and no longer tries to pull the dog's tail. The first step in carrying out an extinction procedure is to identify the _ that is maintaining the behavior. She then moved to Dallas and set her sights on meeting someone new. 771 plays. _ _. On a (use the abbreviation) _ schedule, a minimum amount of time must pass between each response before the reinforcer will be delivered. As a result, she no longer studies at home. Sometimes, operant conditioning involves punishment. Right after Gina was stung by a hornet, she was as likely to run away from houseflies as from hornets, which is an example of stimulus _____________. For example, in an experimental demonstration of avoidance that involves a tone and an aversive air blast, the rat will likely require (one/more than one) _ conditioning trial. Operant Conditioning Quiz. Upgrade to remove ads. Dagoni works for longer and longer periods of time and takes fewer and fewer breaks as his project nears completion. Operant behaviors are usually defined as a _ of responses, all of which are capable of producing a certain _. Section Learning Objectives . Term. Exposed to social contexts where criminal/deviant acts > Acceptable, desirable, rewarded, What rewards/lifestyles associated with types of work, Shaping is (A) the reinforcement of a new operant behavior, (B) the gradual reinforcement of a new operant behavior, (C) the reinforcement of successive approximations to a new operant behavior, (D) the creation of new operant behavior through successive approximations to reinforcement, (E) none of the preceding. -Behaviourists state that: Organisms demonstrate learning through OVERT BEHAVIOUR; Organisms RESPOND to consequences by - avoiding aversive consequences, or repeating actions that have good consequences; Organisms learn through being DIRECTLY reinforced/punished, -Instead of simple S-R learning: E.g., Specific response to specific stimuli (molecular), Goal-oriented behaviour (molar, broader level), -Holistic approach instead of features/molecules, -SELIGMAN's challenge to Skinnerian principles, SELIGMAN's challenge to Skinnerian principles, Feel reinforced/punished by watching model get reinforced/punished, Social learning theory 4 processes involved, Must be able to reproduce action (practice). 2. 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